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Old 18th March 2014
J65nko J65nko is online now
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Default 10,000 Linux servers hit by malware serving tsunami of spam and exploits

From http://arstechnica.com/security/2014...-and-exploits/

Quote:
Researchers have documented an ongoing criminal operation infecting more than 10,000 Unix and Linux servers with malware that sends spam and redirects end users to malicious Web pages.

Windigo, as the attack campaign has been dubbed, has been active since 2011 and has compromised systems belonging to the Linux Foundation's kernel.org and the developers of the cPanel Web hosting control panel, according to a detailed report published Tuesday by researchers from antivirus provider Eset. During its 36-month run, Windigo has compromised more than 25,000 servers with robust malware that sends more than 35 million spam messages a day and exposes Windows-based Web visitors to drive-by malware attacks. It also feeds people running any type of computer banner ads for porn services.
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Old 22nd March 2014
comet--berkeley comet--berkeley is offline
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The report from Eset is an interesting read.

http://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-con...on_windigo.pdf

The report explains what happened in the kernel.org attack in 2011, but Linux was not
the only system attacked.

From page 4 of the report:
Quote:
A wide range of operating system have been compromised by the attackers; Apple OS X, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, Microsoft Windows (through Cygwin) and Linux, including Linux on the ARM architecture.
Quote:
No vulnerabilities were exploited on the Linux servers; only stolen credentials were leveraged. We conclude that password-authentication on servers should be a thing of the past.
From page 67 (Appendix 3) of the report:
Quote:
Here are a few simple recommendations in order to protect yourself from this collection of threats:
  • Disable direct root login in your OpenSSH daemon
    (PermitRootLogin no in /etc/ssh/sshd_config)
  • Disable password-based logins and use an SSH key
  • Use SSH Agent Forwarding to SSH from servers to servers instead of copying your SSH private keys on servers. On GNU/Linux use ssh-agent or GnomeKeyring with ForwardAgent yes under a trusted Host entry in your .ssh/config file. On Windows PuTTY's Pageant supports SSH Agent Forwarding
  • Use two-factor authentication on your servers
  • Use an up to date antivirus solution

Last edited by comet--berkeley; 23rd March 2014 at 07:24 PM. Reason: grammar and spelling
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Old 23rd March 2014
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Quote:
Use two-factor authentication on your servers
Isn't using publickey Authentication where your key has a pass{word,phrase} effectively a two-factor authentication method? You need too *have* the key, and *know* the password.

Popular tools like the Google Authenticator seem overly complex to me, not to mention that they seem to rely on an external service & a smartphone...
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Old 23rd March 2014
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Yes, if a passphrase is selected, then SSH PKA can provide two-factor authentication. But passphrases are optional. Their use must be enforced by policy.

Any system that requres a user to authenticate two different ways -- a) something they have, combined with b) something they know -- are two-factor authentication methods. Other examples: RSA key fobs that provide changing sequences combined with a user PIN. Web applications that require both a client X.509 certificate and a password/passphrase. VPN clients that require workstation certificates combined with a password/passphrase.
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