DaemonForums  

Go Back   DaemonForums > Miscellaneous > Guides

Guides All Guides and HOWTO's.

Reply
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
  #1   (View Single Post)  
Old 26th April 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Cool HOWTO: FreeBSD ZFS Madness

0. This is SPARTA!

Some time ago I found a good, reliable way of using and installing FreeBSD and described it in my Modern FreeBSD Install [1] [2] HOWTO. Now, more then a year later I come back with my experiences about that setup and a proposal of newer and probably better way of doing it.

1. Introduction

Same as year ago, I assume that You would want to create fresh installation of FreeBSD using one or more hard disks, but also with (laptops) and without GELI based full disk encryption.

This guide was written when FreeBSD 9.0 and 8.3 were available and definitely works for 9.0, but I did not try all this on the older 8.3, if You find some issues on 8.3, let me know I will try to address them in this guide.

Earlier, I was not that confident about booting from the ZFS pool, but there is some very neat feature that made me think ZFS boot is now mandatory. If You just smiled, You know that I am thinking about Boot Environments feature from Illumos/Solaris systems.

In case You are not familiar with the Boot Environments feature, check the Managing Boot Environments with Solaris 11 Express PDF white paper [3]. Illumos/Solaris has the beadm(1M) [4] utility and while Philipp Wuensche wrote the manageBE script as replacement [5], it uses older style used at times when OpenSolaris (and SUN) were still having a great time.
I last couple of days writing an up-to-date replacement for FreeBSD compatible beadm utility, and with some tweaks from today I just made it available at SourceForge [6] if You wish to test it. Currently its about 200 lines long, so it should be pretty simple to take a look at it. I tried to make it as compatible as possible with the 'upstream' version, along with some small improvements, it currently supports basic functions like list, create, destroy and activate.

Code:
# beadm
usage:
  beadm subcommand cmd_options

  subcommands:

  beadm activate beName
  beadm create [-e nonActiveBe | beName@snapshot] beName
  beadm create beName@snapshot
  beadm destroy beName
  beadm destroy beName@snapshot
  beadm list
There are several subtle differences between mine implementation and Philipp's one, he defines and then relies upon ZFS property called freebsd:boot-environment=1 for each boot environment, I do not set any other additional ZFS properties. There is already org.freebsd:swap property used for SWAP on FreeBSD, so we may use org.freebsd:be in the future, but is just a thought, right now its not used. My version also supports activating boot environments received with zfs recv command from other systems (it just updates appreciate /boot/zfs/zpool.cache file).

My implementation is also style compatible with current Illumos/Solaris beadm(1M) which is like the example below.
Code:
# beadm create -e default upgrade-test
Created successfully

# beadm list
BE           Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created
default      N      /          1.06M static 2012-02-03 15:08
upgrade-test R      -           560M static 2012-04-24 22:22
new          -      -             8K static 2012-04-24 23:40

# zfs list -r sys/ROOT
NAME                    USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT
sys/ROOT                562M  8.15G   144K  none
sys/ROOT/default       1.48M  8.15G   558M  legacy
sys/ROOT/new              8K  8.15G   558M  none
sys/ROOT/upgrade-test   560M  8.15G   558M  none

# beadm activate default
Activated successfully

# beadm list
BE           Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created
default      NR     /          1.06M static 2012-02-03 15:08
upgrade-test -      -           560M static 2012-04-24 22:22
new          -      -             8K static 2012-04-24 23:40
The boot environments are located in the same please as in Illumos/Solaris, at pool/ROOT/environment place.

2. Now You're Thinking with Portals

The main purpose of the Boot Environments concept is to make all risky tasks harmless, to provide an easy way back from possible troubles. Think about upgrading the system to newer version, an update of 30+ installed packages to latest versions, testing software or various solutions before taking the final decision, and much more. All these tasks are now harmless thanks to the Boot Environments, but this is just the tip of the iceberg.

You can now move desired boot environment to other machine, physical or virtual and check how it will behave there, check hardware support on the other hardware for example or make a painless hardware upgrade. You may also clone Your desired boot environment and ... start it as a Jail for some more experiments or move Your old physical server install into FreeBSD Jail because its not that heavily used anymore but it still have to be available.

Other good example may be just created server on Your laptop inside VirtualBox virtual machine. After you finish the creation process and tests, You may move this boot environment to the real server and put it into production. Or even move it into VMware ESX/vSphere virtual machine and use it there.

As You see the possibilities with Boot Environments are unlimited.

3. The Install Process

I created 3 possible schemes which should cover most demands, choose one and continue to the next step.

3.1. Server with Two Disks

I assume that this server has 2 disks and we will create ZFS mirror across them, so if any of them will be gone the system will still work as usual. I also assume that these disks are ada0 and ada1. If You have SCSI/SAS drives there, they may be named da0 and da1 accordingly. The procedures below will wipe all data on these disks, You have been warned.

Code:
 1. Boot from the FreeBSD USB/DVD.
 2. Select the 'Live CD' option.
 3. login: root
 4. # sh
 5. # DISKS="ada0 ada1"
 6. # for I in ${DISKS}; do
    > NUMBER=$( echo ${I} | tr -c -d '0-9' )
    > gpart destroy -F ${I}
    > gpart create -s GPT ${I}
    > gpart add -t freebsd-boot -l bootcode${NUMBER} -s 128k ${I}
    > gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -l sys${NUMBER} ${I}
    > gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ${I}
    > done
 7. # zpool create -f -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache sys mirror /dev/gpt/sys*
 8. # zfs set mountpoint=none sys
 9. # zfs set checksum=fletcher4 sys
10. # zfs set atime=off sys
11. # zfs create sys/ROOT
12. # zfs create -o mountpoint=/mnt sys/ROOT/default
13. # zpool set bootfs=sys/ROOT/default sys
14. # cd /usr/freebsd-dist/
15. # for I in base.txz kernel.txz; do
    > tar --unlink -xvpJf ${I} -C /mnt
    > done
16. # cp /tmp/zpool.cache /mnt/boot/zfs/
17. # cat << EOF >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf
    > zfs_load=YES
    > vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:sys/ROOT/default"
    > EOF
18. # cat << EOF >> /mnt/etc/rc.conf
    > zfs_enable=YES
    > EOF
19. # :> /mnt/etc/fstab
20. # zfs umount -a
21. # zfs set mountpoint=legacy sys/ROOT/default
22. # reboot
After these instructions and reboot we have these GPT partitions available, this example is on a 512MB disk.

Code:
# gpart show
=>     34  1048509  ada0  GPT  (512M)
       34      256     1  freebsd-boot  (128k)
      290  1048253     2  freebsd-zfs  (511M)

=>     34  1048509  ada1  GPT  (512M)
       34      256     1  freebsd-boot  (128k)
      290  1048253     2  freebsd-zfs  (511M)

# gpart list | grep label
   label: bootcode0
   label: sys0
   label: bootcode1
   label: sys1

# zpool status
  pool: sys
 state: ONLINE
 scan: none requested
config:

        NAME          STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        sys           ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0    ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/sys0  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/sys1  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors
3.2. Server with One Disk

If Your server configuration has only one disk, lets assume its ada0, then You need different points 5. and 7. to make, use these instead of the ones above.

Code:
5. # DISKS="ada0"
7. # zpool create -f -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache sys /dev/gpt/sys*
All other steps are the same.

3.3. Road Warrior Laptop

The procedure is quite different for Laptop because we will use the full disk encryption mechanism provided by GELI and then setup the ZFS pool. Its not currently possible to boot off from the ZFS pool on top of encrypted GELI provider, so we will use setup similar to the Server with ... one but with additional local pool for /home and /root partitions. It will be password based and You will be asked to type-in that password at every boot. The install process is generally the same with new instructions added for the GELI encrypted local pool, I put them with different color to make the difference more visible.

Code:
 1. Boot from the FreeBSD USB/DVD.
 2. Select the 'Live CD' option.
 3. login: root
 4. # sh
 5. # DISKS="ada0"
 6. # for I in ${DISKS}; do
    > NUMBER=$( echo ${I} | tr -c -d '0-9' )
    > gpart destroy -F ${I}
    > gpart create -s GPT ${I}
    > gpart add -t freebsd-boot -l bootcode${NUMBER} -s 128k ${I}
    > gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -l sys${NUMBER} -s 10G ${I}
    > gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -l local${NUMBER} ${I}
    > gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ${I}
    > done
 7. # zpool create -f -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache sys /dev/gpt/sys0
 8. # zfs set mountpoint=none sys
 9. # zfs set checksum=fletcher4 sys
10. # zfs set atime=off sys
11. # zfs create sys/ROOT
12. # zfs create -o mountpoint=/mnt sys/ROOT/default
13. # zpool set bootfs=sys/ROOT/default sys
14. # geli init -b -s 4096 -e AES-CBC -l 128 /dev/gpt/local0
15. # geli attach /dev/gpt/local0
16. # zpool create -f -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache local /dev/gpt/local0.eli
17. # zfs set mountpoint=none local
18. # zfs set checksum=fletcher4 local
19. # zfs set atime=off local
20. # zfs create local/home
21. # zfs create -o mountpoint=/mnt/root local/root
22. # cd /usr/freebsd-dist/
23. # for I in base.txz kernel.txz; do
    > tar --unlink -xvpJf ${I} -C /mnt
    > done
24. # cp /tmp/zpool.cache /mnt/boot/zfs/
25. # cat << EOF >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf
    > zfs_load=YES
    > geom_eli_load=YES
    > vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:sys/ROOT/default"
    > EOF
26. # cat << EOF >> /mnt/etc/rc.conf
    > zfs_enable=YES
    > EOF
27. # :> /mnt/etc/fstab
28. # zfs umount -a
29. # zfs set mountpoint=legacy sys/ROOT/default
30. # zfs set mountpoint=/home local/home
31. # zfs set mountpoint=/root local/root
32. # reboot
After these instructions and reboot we have these GPT partitions available, this example is on a 4GB disk.

Code:
# gpart show
=>     34  8388541  ada0  GPT  (4.0G)
       34      256     1  freebsd-boot  (128k)
      290  2097152     2  freebsd-zfs  (1.0G)
  2097442  6291133     3  freebsd-zfs  (3G)

# gpart list | grep label
   label: bootcode0
   label: sys0
   label: local0

# zpool status
  pool: local
 state: ONLINE
 scan: none requested
config:

        NAME              STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        sys               ONLINE       0     0     0
          gpt/local0.eli  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors

  pool: sys
 state: ONLINE
 scan: none requested
config:

        NAME        STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        sys         ONLINE       0     0     0
          gpt/sys0  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors
4. Basic Setup after Install

1. Login as root with empty password.
login: root
password: [ENTER]


2. Create initial snapshot after install.
# zfs snapshot -r sys/ROOT/default@install

3. Set new root password.
# passwd

4. Set machine's hostname.
# echo hostname=hostname.domain.com >> /etc/rc.conf

5. Set proper timezone.
# tzsetup

6. Add some swap space.
If You used the Server with ... type, then use this to add swap.

Code:
# zfs create -V 1G -o org.freebsd:swap=on \
                   -o checksum=off \
                   -o sync=disabled \
                   -o primarycache=none \
                   -o secondarycache=none sys/swap
# swapon /dev/zvol/sys/swap
If You used the Road Warrior Laptop one, then use this one below, this was the swap space will also be encrypted.

Code:
# zfs create -V 1G -o org.freebsd:swap=on \
                   -o checksum=off \
                   -o sync=disabled \
                   -o primarycache=none \
                   -o secondarycache=none local/swap
# swapon /dev/zvol/local/swap
7. Create snapshot called configured or production
After You configured Your fresh FreeBSD system, added needed packages and services, create snapshot called configured or production so if You mess something, You can always go back in time to bring working configuration back. mess something.

# zfs snapshot -r sys/ROOT/default@configured

5. Enable Boot Environments

Here are some simple instructions on how to download and enable the beadm command line utility for easy Boot Environments administration.

Code:
# fetch https://downloads.sourceforge.net/project/beadm/beadm -o /usr/sbin/beadm
# chmod +x /usr/sbin/beadm
# rehash
# beadm list
BE      Active Mountpoint Space Policy Created
default NR     /           592M static 2012-04-25 02:03
6. WYSIWTF

Now we have a working ZFS only FreeBSD system, I will put some example here about what You now can do with this type of installation and of course the Boot Environments feature.

6.1. Create New Boot Environment Before Upgrade

1. Create new environment from the current one.
# beadm create upgrade
Created successfully


2. Activate it.
# beadm activate upgrade
Activated successfully


3. Reboot into it.
# shutdown -r now

4. Mess with it.

You are now free to do anything You like fo or the upgrade process, but even if You break everything, You still have a working default working environment.

6.2. Perform Upgrade within a Jail

This concept is about creating new boot environment from the desired one, lets call it jailed, then start that new environment inside a FreeBSD Jail and perform upgrade there. After You have finished all tasks related to this upgrade and You are satisfied with the achieved results, shutdown that Jail, set the boot environment into that just upgraded Jail called jailed and reboot into just upgraded system without any risks.

1. Create new boot environment called jailed.
# beadm create -e default jailed
Created successfully


2. Create /usr/jails directory.
# mkdir /usr/jails

3. Set mount point of new boot environment to /usr/jails/jailed dir.
# zfs set mountpoint=/usr/jails/jailed sys/ROOT/jailed

3.1. Make new Jail dataset mountable.
# zfs set canmount=noauto sys/ROOT/jailed

3.2. Mount new Jail dataset.
# zfs mount sys/ROOT/jailed

4. Enable FreeBSD Jails mechanism and the jailed Jail in /etc/rc.conf file.
# cat << EOF >> /etc/rc.conf
> jail_enable=YES
> jail_list="jailed"
> jail_jailed_rootdir="/usr/jails/jailed"
> jail_jailed_hostname="jailed"
> jail_jailed_ip="10.20.30.40"
> jail_jailed_devfs_enable="YES"
> EOF


5. Start the Jails mechanism.
# /etc/rc.d/jail start
Configuring jails:.
Starting jails: jailed.


6. Check if the jailed Jail started.
Code:
# jls
   JID  IP Address      Hostname                      Path
     1  10.20.30.40     jailed                        /usr/jails/jailed
7. Login into the jailed Jail.
# jexec 1 tcsh

8. PERFORM ACTUAL UPGRADE.

9. Stop the jailed Jail.
# /etc/rc.d/jail stop
Stopping jails: jailed.


10. Disable Jails mechanism in /etc/rc.conf file.
# sed -i '' -E s/"^jail_enable.*$"/"jail_enable=NO"/g /etc/rc.conf

11. Activate just upgraded jailed boot environment.
# beadm activate jailed
Activated successfully


12. Reboot into upgraded system.

6.3. Import Boot Environment from Other Machine

Lets assume, that You need to upgrade or do some major modification to some of Your servers, You will then create new boot environment from the default one, move it to other 'free' machine, perform these tasks there and after everything is done, move the modified boot environment to the production without any risks. You may as well transport that environment into You laptop/workstation and upgrade it in a Jail like in step 6.2 of this guide.

1. Create new environment on the production server.
# beadm create upgrade
Created successfully.


2. Send the upgrade environment to test server.
# zfs send sys/ROOT/upgrade | ssh TEST zfs recv -u sys/ROOT/upgrade

3. Activate the upgrade environment on the test server.
# beadm activate upgrade
Activated successfully.


4. Reboot into the upgrade environment on the test server.
# shutdown -r now

5. PERFORM ACTUAL UPGRADE AFTER REBOOT.

6. Sent the upgraded upgrade environment onto production server.
# zfs send sys/ROOT/upgrade | ssh PRODUCTION zfs recv -u sys/ROOT/upgrade

7. Activate upgraded upgrade environment on the production server.
# beadm activate upgrade
Activated successfully.


8. Reboot into the upgrade environment on the production server.
# shutdown -r nowCourier New


7. References

[1] http://forums.freebsd.org/showthread.php?t=10334
[2] http://forums.freebsd.org/showthread.php?t=12082
[3] http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19963-01/pdf/820-6565.pdf
[4] http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19963-01/.../beadm-1m.html
[5] http://anonsvn.h3q.com/projects/free.../wiki/manageBE
[6] https://sourceforge.net/projects/beadm/


The last part of the HOWTO remains the same as Year ago ...

You can now add your users, services and packages as usual on any FreeBSD system, have fun ;)
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd

Last edited by vermaden; 20th June 2012 at 12:21 PM.
Reply With Quote
  #2   (View Single Post)  
Old 18th June 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

The problematic PR about ZFS canmount property has been fixed (thanks to Bryan Drewery) and merged to HEAD (with MFC: 1 week): http://freebsd.org/cgi/query-pr.cgi?pr=167905

So now beadm is fully functional on FreeBSD HEAD and will be in 9-STABLE in less then a week, or You may apply the patch Yourself from here: http://freshbsd.org/commit/freebsd/r237119

With these instructions:
# cd /usr/src/cddl
# patch -p1 < patch-zfs-canmount
# make obj depend all install
# reboot
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
  #3   (View Single Post)  
Old 20th June 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

Little ERRATA, thanks to srivo:

Quote:
3.1. Make new Jail dataset mountable.
# zfs set canmount=noauto sys/ROOT/jailed

3.2. Mount new Jail dataset.
# zfs mount sys/ROOT/jailed
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
  #4   (View Single Post)  
Old 24th June 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

Updates to the beadm utility:

- minor fixes and clean
- added -F switch for destroy option - does not need confirmation upon destroy
- implemented umount option with -f switch for umount -f (force)
- implemented mount option with several variants of usage, examples:

Code:
# beadm
usage:
  beadm subcommand cmd_options

  subcommands:

  beadm activate beName
  beadm create [-e nonActiveBe | -e beName@snapshot] beName
  beadm create beName@snapshot
  beadm destroy [-F] beName | beName@snapshot
  beadm list
  beadm mount
  beadm mount beName [mountpoint]
  beadm umount [-f] beName
  beadm rename origBeName newBeName

# beadm mount
update
  sys/ROOT/update  /

# beadm mount test /test
Mounted successfully on '/test'

# beadm mount default
Mounted successfully on '/tmp/tmp.KhAtHe'

# beadm mount
default
  sys/ROOT/default  /tmp/tmp.KhAtHe

test
  sys/ROOT/test            /test
  sys/ROOT/test/SOMETHING  /test/test

update
  sys/ROOT/update  /

# beadm umount test
Unmounted successfully

# beadm umount -f default
Unmounted successfully
Please report all problems and BUGs
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
  #5   (View Single Post)  
Old 25th June 2012
nilsgecko's Avatar
nilsgecko nilsgecko is offline
Port Guard
 
Join Date: Apr 2011
Location: Chicago, USA
Posts: 45
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Default

Hello and thanks for this very cool how-to/faq. I am looking forward to testing this out soon. Regards
Reply With Quote
  #6   (View Single Post)  
Old 25th June 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

Welcome. Fell free to report any issues.
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
  #7   (View Single Post)  
Old 6th September 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

The beadm 0.8 has just been commited to the Ports tree:

http://freshports.org/sysutils/beadm

Changelog:

Code:
-- Introduce proper space calculation by each boot environment in *beadm list*
-- Rework the *beadm destroy* command so no orphans are left after destroying boot environment.
-- Fix the *beadm mount* and *beadm umount* commands error handling.
-- Rework consistency of all error and informational messages.
-- Simplify and cleanup code where possible.
-- Fix *beadm destroy* for 'static' (not cloned) boot environments received by *zfs receive* command.
-- Use mktemp(1) where possible.
-- Implement *beadm list -a* option to list all datasets and snapshots of boot environments.
-- Add proper mountpoint listing to the *beadm list* command.
   % beadm list
   BE      Active Mountpoint       Space Created
   default NR     /                11.0G 2012-07-28 00:01
   test1   -      /tmp/tmp.IUQuFO  41.2M 2012-08-27 21:20
   test2   -      -                56.6M 2012-08-27 21:20

-- Change snapshot format to the one used by original *beadm* command
(%Y-%m-%d-%H:%M:%S).
   % zfs list -t snapshot -o name -r sys/ROOT/default
   NAME
   sys/ROOT/default@2012-08-27-21:20:00
   sys/ROOT/default@2012-08-27-21:20:18

-- Implement *beadm list -D* option to display space that would be consumed by single boot environment if all other boot environments will be destroyed.
   % beadm list -D
   BE      Active Mountpoint       Space Created
   default NR     /                 9.4G 2012-07-28 00:01
   test1   -      /tmp/tmp.IUQuFO   8.7G 2012-08-27 21:20
   test2   -                        8.7G 2012-08-27 21:20

-- Add an option to BEADM DESTROY command to not destroy manually created snapshots used for boot environment.

   # beadm destroy test1
   Are you sure you want to destroy 'test1'?
   This action cannot be undone (y/[n]): y
   Boot environment 'test1' was created from existing snapshot
   Destroy 'default@test1' snapshot? (y/[n]): y
   Destroyed successfully

   # beadm destroy test1
   Are you sure you want to destroy 'test1'?
   This action cannot be undone (y/[n]): y
   Boot environment 'test1' was created from existing snapshot
   Destroy 'default@test1' snapshot? (y/[n]): n
   Origin snapshot 'default@test1' will be preserved
   Destroyed successfully
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
  #8   (View Single Post)  
Old 15th December 2012
silex silex is offline
Port Guard
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Posts: 18
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Default boot from usb to 100% encrypted laptop zfs over geli

hi here i describe the procedure to encrypt everything including the freebsd system that i use on my laptop and use a usb key with the bootcode, kernel and keys, you can detach the usb media after system boots (btw you'll have to enter two passphrases).

boot from freebsd 9.x usb live disk da0, hard drive is ada0,

Code:
# gpart destroy -F ada0
# gpart create  -s GPT ada0
# gpart add -t freebsd-boot -l bootcode -s 128k ada0
# gpart add -t freebsd-swap -l swap   -s  8G ada0
# gpart add -t freebsd-zfs  -l system -s 10G ada0
# gpart add -t freebsd-zfs  -l local  ada0
# gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i 1 ada0
# glabel label -v system /dev/ada0p3
# glabel label -v local /dev/ada0p4

# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da1
# gpart destroy -F da1
# gpart create  -s GPT da1
# gpart add -t freebsd-boot -l bootcode  -s 128k da1
# gpart add -t freebsd-ufs  -l cryptokey da1
# gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptboot -i 1 da1
# newfs /dev/da1p2
# glabel label -v cryptokey /dev/da1p2
# mkdir /media
# mount /dev/label/cryptokey /media
# mkdir -m 700-p /media/boot/keys /media/backups
# mkdir /media/etc
# dd if=/dev/random of=/media/boot/keys/system.key bs=64 count=1
# dd if=/dev/random of=/media/boot/keys/local.key bs=64 count=1
# chmod 600 /media/boot/keys/*.key

# geli init -e aes -l 128 -K /media/boot/keys/system.key -b -s 4096 -B /media/backups/system.eli.meta /dev/label/system
# geli init -e aes -l 128 -K /media/boot/keys/local.key -b -s 4096 -B /media/backups/local.eli.meta /dev/label/local
# geli attach -k /media/boot/keys/system.key /dev/label/system
# geli attach -k /media/boot/keys/local.key /dev/label/local

# zpool create -f -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache system /dev/label/system.eli
# zfs set mountpoint=none system
# zfs set checksum=fletcher4 system
# zfs set atime=off system
# zfs create system/ROOT
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/mnt system/ROOT/default
# zpool set bootfs=system/ROOT/default system

# zpool create -f -o cachefile=/tmp/zpool.cache local /dev/label/local.eli
# zfs set mountpoint=none local
# zfs set checksum=fletcher4 local
# zfs set atime=off local
# zfs create local/home
# zfs create -o mountpoint=/mnt/root local/root
# cd /usr/freebsd-dist/
# for T in base.txz kernel.txz; do
> tar --unlink -xvpJf ${T} -C /mnt
> done

# cp /tmp/zpool.cache /mnt/boot/zfs/

# cat << EOF >> /mnt/boot/loader.conf
> zfs_load=YES
> ahci_load=YES
> geom_eli_load=YES
> geli_label_system_keyfile0_load=YES
> geli_label_system_keyfile0_type="label/system:geli_keyfile0"
> geli_label_system_keyfile0_name="/boot/keys/system.key"
> geli_label_local_keyfile0_load=YES
> geli_label_local_keyfile0_type="label/local:geli_keyfile0"
> geli_label_local_keyfile0_name="/boot/keys/local.key"
> vfs.root.mountfrom="zfs:system/ROOT/default"
> EOF

# cat << EOF >> /mnt/etc/rc.conf
> zfs_enable=YES
> EOF

# echo /dev/ada0p2.eli none swap sw 0 0 > /mnt/etc/fstab

# cp -Rp /mnt/boot /media/
# cp /mnt/etc/rc.conf /media/etc/
# cp /mnt/etc/fstab /media/etc/

# zfs umount -a
# zfs set mountpoint=legacy system/ROOT/default
# zfs set mountpoint=/home local/home
# zfs set mountpoint=/root local/root
# reboot
now enter the 2 passphrases to decrypt system (freebsd os) and local (/home and /root) as suggested above make a virgin state snapshot; also i would suggest using mtree to check that the kernel on the usb key wasn't tampered to snoop your pass phrases, i'll add the script later on if i'm able to edit the post. best.
Reply With Quote
  #9   (View Single Post)  
Old 15th December 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

@silex

Its pointless to create both sys and local pools as You encrypt both of them, just create the encrypted sys pool.

With USB thumbs that size below, its even aplyable to laptops:


... but the main question is: How it beadm working with it? (as this is this tutorial all about)
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
Old 16th December 2012
silex silex is offline
Port Guard
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Posts: 18
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Default

hi vermaden, what prompted me to share this is not beadm but the fact that your howto for zfs is the best around the interwebs and believe me i looked at so many. so all in all my addition was about encrypting the whole system and using a usb bootkey. on a side note i'm using the config above for a nas, didn't check beadm as of yet, so do you imply that it won't work with the system pool encrypted?. now back to your question i'm having 2 pools on the os disk because i feel it's easier to backup, recover the system should any upgrade go bad. the local part has an important essential subset backup from the raidz, in other words i'm just using the free space left on the OS disk for extra backups. I was hesitant to use a USB disk OS and maybe i'm wrong. other than that i'm using a small ssd for the zil. Well i think that's all about my zfs experience and thank you for sharing this as I said it's probably the best online .
Reply With Quote
Old 17th December 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by silex View Post
hi vermaden, what prompted me to share this is not beadm but the fact that your howto for zfs is the best around the interwebs and believe me i looked at so many.
It does not cover 4k drives (gnop devices), so its not the best, but thanks

Quote:
Originally Posted by silex View Post
so all in all my addition was about encrypting the whole system and using a usb bootkey. on a side note i'm using the config above for a nas, didn't check beadm as of yet, so do you imply that it won't work with the system pool encrypted?
Encryption is not the problem.

The MAIN problem, is that FreeBSD Bootloader is not able to boot FreeBSD from ZFS which is on encrypted GELI drive, so we have to do it other way.

One of the things that beadm does is it changes bootfs property of ZFS pool and vfs.root.mountfrom line in the /boot/loader.conf, so beadm will have to be modified to do that on the separate / or /boot or separate pool.

Its not impossible, its just pain in the ass

Quote:
Originally Posted by silex View Post
now back to your question i'm having 2 pools on the os disk because i feel it's easier to backup, recover the system should any upgrade go bad. the local part has an important essential subset backup from the raidz, in other words i'm just using the free space left on the OS disk for extra backups.
In some advanced configuration, sure, 2 drives in ZFS mirror for sys and other drives in some fancy stripes and mirrors, or raidz configurations for local pool.

Quote:
Originally Posted by silex View Post
I was hesitant to use a USB disk OS and maybe i'm wrong.
IMHO nothing wrong with that.
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
Old 17th December 2012
silex silex is offline
Port Guard
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Posts: 18
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by vermaden View Post
It does not cover 4k drives (gnop devices), so its not the best, but thanks
Right! and there's lots of madness lying there. So here's what I did, and please correct me if I'm wrong, on my nas pool, my logic was to tackle the Advanced Format bs by partitioning the disk so that it stays in the boundaries of 4096 bytes at a time for whatever operation, then well Geli was set to feed ZFS 4K chunks and ZFS would just align (ashift 12), I didn't bother using gnop since I'm already at 3 software layers for disk access without counting ZFS. Is there any issue apparent in here?

Here's the implementation detail
Code:
# gpart destroy -F ada1
...
# gpart destroy -F ada4
# gpart create  -s GPT ada1
...
# gpart create  -s GPT ada4
# gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -l zdisk1 -b 2048 -a 4k ada1
...
# gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -l zdisk4 -b 2048 -a 4k ada4
# glabel label -v znas1 /dev/ada1p1
...
# glabel label -v znas4 /dev/ada4p1
# geli init -e aes -l 128 -K /media/boot/keys/znas1.key -b -s 4096 -B /media/backups/znas1.eli.meta /dev/label/znas1
... 
# geli init -e aes -l 128 -K /media/boot/keys/znas4.key -b -s 4096 -B /media/backups/znas4.eli.meta /dev/label/znas4
# geli attach -k /media/boot/keys/znas1.key /dev/label/znas1
...
# geli attach -k /media/boot/keys/znas4.key /dev/label/znas4
# zpool create nas raidz /dev/label/znas1.eli /dev/label/znas2.eli /dev/label/znas3.eli /dev/label/znas4.eli
# zdb nas | grep ashift
# zpool export nas
# zpool import nas
# zpool status
Quote:
Originally Posted by vermaden View Post
Encryption is not the problem.

The MAIN problem, is that FreeBSD Bootloader is not able to boot FreeBSD from ZFS which is on encrypted GELI drive, so we have to do it other way.
Got it. Personally I found this ZFS setup way too complex already, I'm may be accustomed to KISS stuff from OpenBSD but I really needed ZFS for this server, it took me about 10days to get everything sorted out with not much trial and errors so for now i think i'd better pass on Beadm although I can see how useful it is.

Last edited by silex; 17th December 2012 at 02:14 PM.
Reply With Quote
Old 19th December 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by silex View Post
Right! and there's lots of madness lying there. So here's what I did, and please correct me if I'm wrong, on my nas pool, my logic was to tackle the Advanced Format bs by partitioning the disk so that it stays in the boundaries of 4096 bytes at a time for whatever operation, then well Geli was set to feed ZFS 4K chunks and ZFS would just align (ashift 12), I didn't bother using gnop since I'm already at 3 software layers for disk access without counting ZFS. Is there any issue apparent in here?
These instructions seem to be OK, but I haven't tried them at home yet ;p

Quote:
Originally Posted by silex View Post
Got it. Personally I found this ZFS setup way too complex already, I'm may be accustomed to KISS stuff from OpenBSD but I really needed ZFS for this server, it took me about 10days to get everything sorted out with not much trial and errors so for now i think i'd better pass on Beadm although I can see how useful it is.
If You take some time to understand what really ZFS snapshot and ZFS clone is, beadm is no-brainer then
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
Old 26th December 2012
silex silex is offline
Port Guard
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Posts: 18
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Default

Vermaden, something extra we forgot to mention on ZFS and disk alignment: I've seen a noticeable improvement when the ZIL on the SSD is properly aligned, in that case i've used Gnop to 4K-align a mounted memory drive then instructed ZFS to mirror log on the SSD with the properly aligned memory drive, I then deleted the MD and the Gnop device yet ZFS keeps a 12 ashift on the log disk and it's what we want. [strike]I'll add the instructions later.[/strike]

ZIL / Log Device /dev/ada5
for proper alignement calculate dd seek with this formula: device media size / 1024000 -1
Code:
# diskinfo -v ada5 #### media size: 128035676160 
# echo "128035676160 / 1024000 - 1" | bc #### seek: 125033 
# dd if=/dev/zero of=tmpdsk0 bs=1024000 count=1 seek=125033
# mdconfig -a -t vnode -f tmpdsk0
# gnop create -S 4096 md0
# gpart create -s gpt ada5
# gpart add -t freebsd-zfs -l zlog -b 2048 -a 4k ada5
# zpool add znas log mirror md0.nop gpt/zlog
# zpool detach znas md0.nop
# gnop destroy md0.nop
# mdconfig -d -u md0
# zdb znas | grep ashift
to remove ZIL use
Code:
# zpool remove znas zlog



ps. I'm posting here because this thread is probably one of the most complete ZFS installation instructions found online and it's good to keep it alive.

Last edited by silex; 28th December 2012 at 09:26 PM. Reason: ZFS ZIL Correct Alignment Instructions
Reply With Quote
Old 26th December 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

@silex

I have read some about 4K (ashift=12) align on L2ARC and ZIL devices, post these instructions here as many people will find them useful.
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
Old 28th December 2012
silex silex is offline
Port Guard
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Posts: 18
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Default

Done thing, my next step is on enhancing security with two factor authentication using Yubikey but that has more to do with GELI than ZFS per se;

Last edited by silex; 3rd January 2013 at 04:18 PM. Reason: removed off topic stuff
Reply With Quote
Old 30th December 2012
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by silex View Post
@vermaden if you could start a FreeBSD on armish cross compiling how-to that covers kernel, world and ports for SoCs like Raspberry Pi, Beaglebone, Pandabox etc.
I do not own any of these devices and I do not plan to get one. My Mini-ITX storage box based on mobile Intel Core 2 Duo is more then enough for me.
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
Old 4th January 2013
silex silex is offline
Port Guard
 
Join Date: Mar 2012
Posts: 18
Thanked 0 Times in 0 Posts
Default

EuroBSDCON 2012 presentation on ZFS tuning for database, web and file servers, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIpI7Ub6yjo
Reply With Quote
Old 4th January 2013
vermaden's Avatar
vermaden vermaden is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: pl_PL.lodz
Posts: 1,052
Thanked 118 Times in 93 Posts
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by silex View Post
EuroBSDCON 2012 presentation on ZFS tuning for database, web and file servers, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIpI7Ub6yjo
Thanks.

Its quite long, so getting it for offline view could be handy:
Code:
% cclive -f fmt22_720p "http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PIpI7Ub6yjo"
Checking ... ........ ........ ......done.
Tuning ZFS on FreeBSD Martin Matuska EuroBSDcon 2012.mp4  468.43M  [video/mp4]
[##############-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------]  11%  54.9M   1.0M/s  00:06:40
__________________
religions, worst damnation of mankind
"If 386BSD had been available when I started on Linux, Linux would probably never had happened." Linus Torvalds

Linux is not UNIX! Face it! It is not an insult. It is fact: GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX”.
vermaden's: links resources deviantart spreadbsd
Reply With Quote
Old 1st August 2013
J65nko J65nko is offline
Administrator
 
Join Date: May 2008
Location: Budel - the Netherlands
Posts: 3,198
Thanked 182 Times in 149 Posts
Default

Two weeks ago I created a Makefile to automate the ZFS setup for 2 disks as described here, but adapted the procedure to align to 4K sectors disks.

A few hours ago I tested this with 9.2-BETA2. Some details ......

Code:
 FreeBSD  9.2-BETA2 FreeBSD 9.2-BETA2 #0 r253698: Sat Jul 27 18:22:20 UTC 2013   
root@bake.isc.freebsd.org:/usr/obj/usr/src/sys/GENERIC  amd64

# zpool status
  pool: syspool
 state: ONLINE
  scan: none requested
config:

        NAME            STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        NAME            STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
        syspool         ONLINE       0     0     0
          mirror-0      ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/disk_1  ONLINE       0     0     0
            gpt/disk_2  ONLINE       0     0     0

errors: No known data errors

# zpool list
NAME      SIZE  ALLOC   FREE    CAP  DEDUP  HEALTH  ALTROOT
syspool  1.81T   712M  1.81T     0%  1.00x  ONLINE  -

# zfs listNAME                   USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT
syspool               4.82G  1.78T   144K  none
syspool/ROOT           711M  1.78T   144K  none
syspool/ROOT/default   710M  1.78T   710M  legacy
syspool/swap          4.13G  1.78T    72K  -

# zdb -C syspool
MOS Configuration:
        version: 5000
        name: 'syspool'
        state: 0
        txg: 152
        pool_guid: 3438526185973838084
        hostid: 556313802
        hostname: ''
        vdev_children: 1
        vdev_tree:
            type: 'root'
            id: 0
            guid: 3438526185973838084
            children[0]:
                type: 'mirror'
                id: 0
                guid: 10481547726514786031
                metaslab_array: 33
                metaslab_shift: 34
                ashift: 12
                asize: 2000394125312
                is_log: 0
                create_txg: 4
                children[0]:
                    type: 'disk'
                    id: 0
                    guid: 13788062699240212125
                    path: '/dev/gpt/disk_1'
                    phys_path: '/dev/gpt/disk_1'
                    whole_disk: 1
                    create_txg: 4
                children[1]:
                    type: 'disk'
                    id: 1
                    guid: 6638123737697553782
                    path: '/dev/gpt/disk_2'
                    phys_path: '/dev/gpt/disk_2'
                    whole_disk: 1
                    create_txg: 4
        features_for_read:
The ashift 12 indicates that ZFS is using a 4K alignment. Of course you also need to align the partition(s) on a 4K (8 x 512) boundary:
Code:
#  gpart show ada1 ; gpart show ada2
=>        34  3907029101  ada1  GPT  (1.8T)
          34           6        - free -  (3.0k)
          40          88     1  freebsd-boot  (44k)
         128  3907029000     2  freebsd-zfs  (1.8T)
  3907029128           7        - free -  (3.5k)

=>        34  3907029101  ada2  GPT  (1.8T)
          34           6        - free -  (3.0k)
          40          88     1  freebsd-boot  (44k)
         128  3907029000     2  freebsd-zfs  (1.8T)
  3907029128           7        - free -  (3.5k)
diskinfo(8) shows that the drives I used are Advanced Format drives. These drives report a sector of 512 bytes, while actually they use sectors of 4096 bytes.
Code:
# diskinfo -v ada1 ; diskinfo -v ada2
ada1
        512             # sectorsize
        2000398934016   # mediasize in bytes (1.8T)
        3907029168      # mediasize in sectors
        4096            # stripesize
        0               # stripeoffset
        3876021         # Cylinders according to firmware.
        16              # Heads according to firmware.
        63              # Sectors according to firmware.
        S1E160MR        # Disk ident.

ada2
        512             # sectorsize
        2000398934016   # mediasize in bytes (1.8T)
        3907029168      # mediasize in sectors
        4096            # stripesize
        0               # stripeoffset
        3876021         # Cylinders according to firmware.
        16              # Heads according to firmware.
        63              # Sectors according to firmware.
        S1E15YPP        # Disk ident.
The 9.2-BETA2 dmesg(8) reports these drives as:
Code:
ada1 at ata3 bus 0 scbus1 target 0 lun 0
ada1: <ST2000DM001-1CH164 CC24> ATA-8 SATA 3.x device
ada1: 300.000MB/s transfers (SATA 2.x, UDMA5, PIO 8192bytes)
ada1: 1907729MB (3907029168 512 byte sectors: 16H 63S/T 16383C)
ada1: quirks=0x1<4K>
ada1: Previously was known as ad6
ada2 at ata3 bus 0 scbus1 target 1 lun 0
ada2: <ST2000DM001-1CH164 CC24> ATA-8 SATA 3.x device
ada2: 300.000MB/s transfers (SATA 2.x, UDMA5, PIO 8192bytes)
ada2: 1907729MB (3907029168 512 byte sectors: 16H 63S/T 16383C)
ada2: quirks=0x1<4K>
ada2: Previously was known as ad7
__________________
You don't need to be a genius to debug a pf.conf firewall ruleset, you just need the guts to run tcpdump

Last edited by J65nko; 1st August 2013 at 10:53 PM.
Reply With Quote
Reply

Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Forum Jump

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
FreeBSD GPT howto graudeejs Guides 10 21st December 2010 12:24 AM
HOWTO: FreeBSD CPU Scaling with cpufreq.ko vermaden Guides 10 27th October 2010 07:58 AM
interrupt storm and irq madness siffland FreeBSD General 5 23rd October 2009 05:16 AM
HOWTO: QEMU on FreeBSD vermaden Guides 10 9th March 2009 07:10 PM
HOWTO: FreeBSD with CCACHE vermaden Guides 10 9th July 2008 06:14 PM


All times are GMT. The time now is 07:39 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Content copyright © 2007-2010, the authors
Daemon image copyright ©1988, Marshall Kirk McKusick