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Old 7th December 2008
giga giga is offline
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Default Backup to USB flash drive

What is easiest way to backup every day my server to USB flash drive (16GB)?

I like to backup full system, not only "/home", so I can easely replase my HD and restore all from flash drive if something goes wrong.

Code:
$ df -h
Filesystem     Size    Used   Avail Capacity  Mounted on
/dev/ad0s1a    989M    268M    642M    29%    /
devfs          1.0K    1.0K      0B   100%    /dev
/dev/ad0s1g     19G    4.3G     14G    24%    /home
/dev/ad0s1f    989M    570K    910M     0%    /tmp
/dev/ad0s1d    9.7G    4.6G    4.3G    52%    /usr
/dev/ad0s1e    989M    482M    428M    53%    /var
devfs          1.0K    1.0K      0B   100%    /var/named/dev
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Old 7th December 2008
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Read man pages for dump.
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Old 7th December 2008
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dump or rsync
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Old 7th December 2008
J65nko J65nko is offline
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The smallest atom dump can backup is a filesystem, so in your case
Code:
/dev/ad0s1a (/)
/dev/ad0s1g (/home)
/dev/ad0s1f (/tmp)
/dev/ad0s1d (/usr)
/dev/ad0s1e (/var)
By default dump assumes to be working on a tape drive device. If you want to backup to a file you have to use both the -f and -a options.

You have to watch out that you don't backup the filesystem you backup device is mounted on.
E.g if you are dumping /dev/ad0s1g, your /home directory, don't mount your drive on a subdirectory of /home.
If you backup drive is mounted on "/mnt", then it is ok to dump any other filesystem, except /dev/ad0s1a (/) of course

If you are the only user, you could mount your disk on a directory in /tmp, which you probably don't want to backup anyway.

Assuming your backup drive has been mounted on /tmp/mount you could do something like this
Code:
# dump -0auf /tmp/mnt/myhome_dump0 /dev/ad0s1g
The options
Code:
0                       : level of backup   
a                       : auto-size to bypass tape length stuff
u                       : update dump statistics in /etc/dumpdates
f /tmp/mnt/myhome_dump0 : destination file 
/dev/ad0s1g             : the filesystem to be 'dump'ed
Or you could compress with gzip
Code:
# dump -0auf - /dev/ad0s1g  | gzip >/tmp/mnt/myhome_dump0.gz
Here you specify the destination file with a hyphen: -.
This means standard output, which is piped into gzip for compression.

All this works similar in FreeBSD and OpenBSD. Most system administrators will either go into single user mode, or stop daemons/programs which could generate file output during the dumping process.

With FreeBSD, you don't have to do this, if you the -L option which takes a snapshot of the filesystem and dumps the snapshot.
But I am conservative, I just go into single user mode
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Old 8th December 2008
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Using tar is also a common alternative. It has the advantage, that you can restore single files if something bad happened to them. The disadvantage is, that a bare metal restore needs a bit more steps done by hand.
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Old 8th December 2008
J65nko J65nko is offline
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Elon, you can restore individual files from a dump backup using restore -i
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